Types of Laser Surgeries & All about Lasik Eye Surgery

How many times do your spectacles make you feel awkward and extremely self-conscious? How many times have you missed going out socializing or partying only because your spectacles make you look like a geek? Perhaps, many times. There is a staggering 82% of the female population who does not wear glasses even when they need to. Children and female folks are disinclined to wearing spectacles and thus are low on confidence. Females restrict from wearing them because of insecurity over their looks, whereas, children dislike sporting spectacles because of fear of getting teased by peers. The hesitation in wearing glasses for correcting eye problems is very detrimental for the person over a long term.

Doctors have time and again played an instrumental role in introducing life-changing surgeries and medical remedies for simplest of ailments. Similarly, ophthalmologists have developed a revolutionary technique for curing eyesight problems in people of every age.

Types of laser surgeries to correct defects in vision are:

Ophthalmologists and scientists working on infections and opthalmic disorders have developed a number of techniques to help rid the patient of his vision defects. They help the patient to get a normal vision to return back to his routine as fast as possible, post undergoing operation:

  • PRK surgery:

Photorefractive Keratectomy involves using ultra-violet rays which reshape the cornea after coming in contact with it. Contact lenses are placed on the operated eye post surgery for a few days. This surgery was developed even before lasik was discovered


PRELEX is a better alternative for lasik for people in their forties who develop vision deficiencies. This surgery involves replacing natural lenses in the eyes with artificial presbyopic lenses. It also prevents possibilities of cataract formation in eyes in old age.

  • LASEK:

Laser epithelial keratomileusis or LASEK provides combined benefits of Lasik and Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK). Unlike lasik, there is no cutting or reattaching cornea which keeps no place for any complications. Any patient undergoing LASEK is likely to recover proper vision within 2 weeks.

  • Intacs:

Keratoconus is a condition in which cornea bulges and hence causes irregularity in vision. People suffering from this condition have sensitivity to light and also see overlapping images. Intacs surgery involves Intacs corneal implants. Intacs surgery entails flattening of the cornea for achieving correction in vision. However, it is seen that intacs implants may be successful in only less than 5% of people undergoing such a surgery.

  • Lasik surgery:

Lasik makes use of a laser beam which operates on the outer surface on the cornea and not directly the inner layer. This type is more in demand. More information on Lasik surgery is given below.

What is Lasik eye surgery?

Lasik eye surgery is the name given to corrective surgery for laser operations of eyes. This refractive surgery cures eye sight issues such as hypermetropia, astigmatism and myopia. Lasik is one of the different types of laser eye surgery.

Are you eligible for Lasik eye surgery?

You are an eligible candidate for undergoing Lasik eye surgery only if you fit the following criterion:

  • The person should be above 18 years of age
  • He/she should not be having any other illness or complications
  • Eyes need to be free from infections, dryness or complications related to eyesight
  • The person is ineligible if they are suffering from autoimmune diseases
  • He/she is also ineligible if they have any medical condition which causes thinning of their cornea
  • Corneal thickness more than 480 microns makes the candidate eligible for laser surgery
  • The person should not be allergic to local or general anesthesia

What happens during Lasik eye surgery?

Lasik is also referred to as “laser in situ keratomileusis.” A general or local anesthesia is administered to the patient. The doctor uses a speculum an instrument for keeping your eyelids open even when anesthesia is given. Further, the eye surgery entails the surgeon using a cutting laser for cutting the corneal flap. After folding back the cut flap, the exposed region of the cornea is then reshaped.

What happens immediately after surgery?

  • After the surgery, your eyes may experience a watering or a burning and itching sensation. There are also chances of having an unclear vision
  • The doctor would also prescribe eye-drops to be used for reducing discomfort

What precautions should be taken post-surgery?

  • Restrain from applying makeup or cosmetics for a few days post laser eye surgery
  • Schedule follow-up appointments with your doctor to check how the recovery is happening
  • Do not allow tap water to come in contact with your eyes
  • Similarly, do not allow soap or shampoo to get into your eyes while bathing
  • You cannot go swimming or doing any strenuous exercises and activities for at least 2 weeks post laser eye surgery
  • Wearing sunglasses while stepping out for at least 12 months post surgery is essential

What are the possible outcomes of surgery over time?

  • No response to surgery- There are chances that your quality of vision returns to the same as it was before surgery
  • Over-correction- Over-correction happens when too much of tissue is sucked out during surgery from your cornea
  • Under-correction- This is exactly opposite to over-correction. Under-correction happens when too little tissue is extracted. At such times, the patient requires an enhancement surgery within a year
  • Blurred vision- You may have difficulty in viewing objects during night time. Or worse, you may see halos forming near bright lights at night.
  • Dry eyes- dry eyes and constant use of eye drops can cause inflammation and also loss of vision
  • Speckles in vision- The flap which is folded and reshaped during surgery can cause wrinkles. Which lead to speckles forming in the vision necessitating a second surgery

Risks notwithstanding, surgery can reduce dependence on eyeglasses or contact lenses. For more information about Lasik eye surgery here. The reader is given a short idea about what exactly Lasik eye surgery or surgery for correcting long and short-sightedness is. This surgery is slowly becoming popular in India. It also talks about procedures and types, the criteria which decide whether the person is eligible for the surgery and the care to take if he/she undergoes this surgery.


Author Bio:

Pousali is an M.Phil in English literature and likes to explore genres related to arts and aesthetics. She is an ardent believer of the ‘learning, unlearning and relearning’ process. She truly enjoys knowing and writing on different concepts.

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